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ONLINE im WS 2020/21: The World Goes Nuclear: Global History of Nuclear Energy (M. Sc. GNT, Module GdP, WG) - Einzelansicht

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Veranstaltungsart Seminar Langtext
Veranstaltungsnummer 179393 Kurztext
Semester WS 2020 SWS 2
Teilnehmer 1. Platzvergabe 15 Max. Teilnehmer 2. Platzvergabe 15
Rhythmus keine Übernahme Studienjahr
Credits für IB und SPZ
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Sprache Deutsch/Englisch
Belegungsfrist Standardbelegung Wintersemester ab Mitte August/ Sommersemester ab Mitte Februar
Abmeldefristen A1 - Belegung ohne Abmeldung    31.08.2020 09:00:00 - 21.10.2020 07:59:59   
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A2 - Belegung mit Abmeldung 2 Wochen    21.10.2020 08:00:00 - 16.11.2020 23:59:59   
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A3 - Belegung ohne Abmeldung    17.11.2020 00:00:01 - 22.02.2021 07:59:59    aktuell
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  Tag Zeit Rhythmus Dauer Raum Lehrperson (Zuständigkeit) Status Bemerkung fällt aus am Max. Teilnehmer 2. Platzvergabe
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11.02.2021
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Zugeordnete Personen
Zugeordnete Personen Zuständigkeit
Forstner, Christian, Privatdozent, Dr. verantwortlich
Sander, Christiane organisatorisch
Studiengänge
Abschluss Studiengang Semester Prüfungsversion
Master of Science Geschichte d.Naturwissens - 2010
Zuordnung zu Einrichtungen
PRO Geschichte Lebenswissenschaften
Inhalt
Kommentar

The seminar deals with the production, global transfer, and local implementation of nuclear technology. The mutual interdependence and interaction of national programs with transnational knowledge transfer is fundamental to understand the (non-)proliferation of nuclear knowledge. The dual-use character of nuclear technology enforces this observation. We start with an introduction to the early networks of nuclear research and the transfer of academic research into big science in World War II. In the following sessions, we focus on the Cold War period during which nuclear knowledge became a part of the foreign policy of the two super powers and was used to establish and secure the hegemony of the United States in the West as well as the Soviet Union in the East. We will both, discuss the cases of small/political neutral European countries as well as the cases of nuclear powers like Great Britain and France. Finally, we leave the standard western viewpoint by analyzing Japan, Korea, India, and Africa.

Lerninhalte

1. Introduction: Neutrons in Uranium (2 sessions)
    1. Introduction, From Radioactivity Research to Nuclear Fission
    2. The German „Uranverein” and the Manhattan Project


Content: The first introductory session starts with an overview on the topics dealt within the seminar and the formal requirements for participation. Then, a summary of the development of radioactive/nuclear research from its beginnings at the end of the 19C until the discovery of nuclear fission is given. In the second session the application of nuclear fission to a nuclear reactor or a nuclear bomb in the context of the German ”Uranverein” and the American ”Manhattan Project” is exposed.

Educational objectives: The students become familiar with the concept of Big Science and recognize the different structures of nuclear knowledge production in Germany and the USA during World War II.

Recommended Readings:
Walker, Mark, Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb. (New York, 1995).
Hughes, Jeff, The Manhattan Project: Big Science and the Atom Bomb. (New York, 2002).
Galison, Peter, und Bruce Hevly, (eds.), Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research. (Stanford, 1992).


2. Knowledge Transfers in the Postwar Era (2 sessions)

   3. Operation Overcast and Operation Osoaviakhim
   4. Atoms for Peace and its Russian Equivalent


Content: In the 3rd session the focus is on two examples of knowledge transfer in the early postwar era: US-American Operation Overcast and Soviet Operation Osoaviakhim. The 4th session deals with the American Atoms for Peace Program in comparison to its Russian pendant.

Educational objectives: The students recognize the fundamental differences between the knowledge transfer in the immediate postwar era and the cold war. They understand the role of knowledge and controlled knowledge flows for the installation and preservation of hegemony.

Recommended Readings:
Naimark, Norman M., The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. (Cambridge, Mass, 1995), chap. 4: The Soviet use of German science, p. 205-250.
Gimbel, John. Science, Technology, and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany. (Stanford, 1990).
Krige, John. „Building the Arsenal of Knowledge”. Centaurus 52 (2010): 280–296.
Ciesla, Burghard. „Das ‚Project Paperclip‘: Deutsche Naturwissenschaftler und Techniker in den USA (1946 bis 1952),” in: Jürgen Kocka (Hrsg.), Historische DDR-Forschung: Aufsätze und Studien, (Berlin, 1993), 287–301.
John Krige ”Atoms for Peace, Scientific Internationalism, and Scientific Intelligence,” in: John Krige and Kai-Henrik Barth (eds.), Global Knowledge Power. Science and Technology in International Affairs, Osiris 21 (2006), 161- 181.
Schmid, Sonja D. „Nuclear Colonization? Soviet Technopolitics in the Second World,” in: Gabrielle Hecht (ed.), Entangled Geographies. Empire and Technopolitics in the Cold War, (Cambridge, Mass, 2011), 125–154.


3. Nuclear Energy Programs in Small European States (3 sessions)

    5. Denmark
    6. Austria
    7. Switzerland

Content: The 3rd block of the seminar compares three small European states in terms of their nuclear politics, research, and economy: The NATO founding member Denmark and the politically neutral states Austria and Switzerland. They have in common that they all have a long tradition in nuclear research but they differ in how they realize their nuclear energy programs.

Educational objectives: The students understand the different concepts of political neutrality and they learn about the methodological approaches to innovation. Furthermore, they understand the role of the social, economic and political context for embedding and creating new knowledge.

Recommended Readings:
Nielsen, Henry, und Hendrik Knudsen, „The Troublesome Life of Peaceful Atoms in Denmark”. History in Technology 26 (2010), 91–118.
Forstner, Christian, „Zur Geschichte der österreichischen Kernenergieprogramme,” in: Silke Fengler und Carola Sachse (Hrsg.), Kernforschung in Österreich: Wandlungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsfeldes 1900-1978, (Wien, Köln, Weimar, 2012), 159–180.
Wildi, Thomas. Der Traum vom eigenen Reaktor. schweizerische Atomtechnologieentwicklung 1945-1969. (Zürich, 2003).


4. Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapons (3 sessions)
    8. UK

    9. France
  10. Sweden

Content: The sessions exemplify the connection between nuclear energy and nuclear weapons and their intended role to strengthen the position of national state within the Cold War networks. Britain developed nuclear weapons until the successful test of the H-bomb in 1958 in a mostly independent manner. After that the US-UK Mutual Defense Agreement was signed and Britain received classified information from the US. In contrast to the UK, nuclear weapons supported France’s ambition to strengthen its independence from those networks. Sweden finally dismissed its own nuclear plans with in the Western network.

Educational objectives: The students learn that a comprehensive analysis of national nuclear weapon programs can only be successful in taking account of the Cold War networks with the US as a central node.

Recommended Readings:
Hughes, Jeff. „What is British Nuclear Culture? Understanding Uranium 235,” British Journal for the History of Science 45 (2012), 495-518.
Hecht, Gabrielle. The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998.
Fjæstad, Maja and Jonter, Thomas. ”Between Welfare and Warfare: The Rise and Fall of the ‘Swedish Line’ in Nuclear Engineering,” in: Per Lundin, Niklas Stenlas and Johan Gribbe (eds.) Science for Welfare and Warfare:Technology and State Initiative in Cold War Sweden, (Sagamore Beach, 2010), 153–172.


5. Divided Between East and West (1 session)

   11. The Two German States


Content: This session focuses on two front-line states of the Cold War: The GDR and the FRG. The rearmament of the West German army as well as the nuclear policy of the West German government on the one hand and the prevention of an independent development of nuclear technology in East Germany on the other hand viewed from the perspective of transnational networks will be the central issues of this session.

Educational objectives: The students understand the importance of international and transnational networks in order to restrict the policy of individual states and their impact on the knowledge production in a single state.

Recommended Readings:
Eckert, Michael. „Kernenergie und Westintegration: Die Zähmung des westdeutschen Nuklearnationalismus,” in: Ludolf Herbst, Werner Bührer, und Hanno Sowade (Hrsg.), Vom Marshallplan zur EWG. Die Eingliederung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in die westliche Welt, (München, 1990), 313–334.
Müller, Wolfgang D. Geschichte der Kernenergie in der DDR. Kernforschung und Kerntechnik im Schatten des Sozialismus. (Stuttgart, 2001).


6. Beyond the Western Perspective (3 sessions)

   12. The Different Perceptions of Nuclear Energy in Japan and South Korea
   13. New Zealand
   14. Nuclear Energy and Nation Building: India
   15. Uranium production and postcolonial questions.

Content: This block leaves the traditional Western historiography. It starts with the different perceptions of the atomic bomb in Japan and South Korea and the analysis of their history in terms of nuclear energy programs. Then, one of the biggest non-aligned countries, India and its nuclear energy program within the Cold War networks is discussed. Finally, we focus on Africa, uranium production and the global uranium trade. Mostly, the nuclear powers are the former colonizers while the uranium producers are the former colonies. Therefore it is also necessary to take a postcolonial perspective to complete the picture of a world gone nuclear.

Educational objectives: The students understand why a completely different perception of the atomic bomb in Japan and South Korea led to a similar attitude to nuclear energy. They learn what it means to become a ”nuclear power” for a developing country and they become aware of postcolonial perspectives.

Recommended Readings:
Yamazaki, Masakatsu. ”Nuclear Energy in Postwar Japan and Anti-Nuclear Movements in the 1950s” Historia Scientarium (Tokyo), 19 (2009), 132-145.
Rebecca Priestley, Mad on Radium: New Zealand in the Atomic Age. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2012.
DiMoia, John. ”Atoms for Power?: The Atomic Energy Research Institute (AERI) and South Korean Electrification, (1948-1965),” Historia Scientarium (Tokyo), 19 (2009), 170-183.
Phalkey, Jahnavi. Atomic State: Big Science in Twentieth Century India. (New Delhi, 2013).
Hecht, Gabrielle. Being Nuclear: Africans and the Global Uranium Trade. (Cambridge, Mass., 2012).

 

7. Final Discussion
    16. Final Discussion

The aim is to sum up the central topics of the seminar and to draw a big picture beyond the individual session: The shift of knowledge production from the academic laboratory to big science, the different forms of knowledge transfer and its role for political hegemony, the role of these transfers for the local national programs and their different configurations, as well as the importance of nuclear weapons for the non-superpowers within the cold war networks rethought. Postcolonial questions from the foregoing sessions will be present in the whole discussion.

Strukturbaum
Die Veranstaltung wurde 6 mal im Vorlesungsverzeichnis WiSe 2020/21 gefunden:
Hauptseminare  - - - 5

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